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Coal Quality of the Former Soviet Union -

43 Zeilen  The GOSSTANDART (GOST 25543-88) standard classification of coals for the Former Soviet Union coals describes brown and hard coals and anthracites (Yeriomin, 1988).

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Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet

The Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) ArcView project contains 10 views and 4 cross-section pseudo views. Three views contain georeferenced spatial data: the coal basins and territories of the FSU, the coal resources of the FSU, and the surface geology of the FSU.

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Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet

Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet Union ¯ An ArcView Project By Michael E. Brownfield 1, Douglas W. Steinshouer 2, Mikhail Yu. Povarennykh 3, Ivan Eriomin 4, Mikhail Shpirt 4, Yevgeny Meitov 5, Irena Sharova 5, Nina Goriunova 4, and Margarita V. Zyrianova 2

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Coal Quality Of The Former Soviet Union

2017826 Soviet experience of underground coal gasification focusing on surface subsidence Yury DERBIN1, James WALKER1, former Soviet Union countries have a long history of developing the science related to UCG and experimenting with its applica too deep or too low in quality to be mined economically Walter, 2007.

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Coal quality and resources of the Former Soviet

DOI: 10.3133/OFR01104 Corpus ID: 150923338. Coal quality and resources of the Former Soviet Union; an ArcView project @inproceedings{Brownfield2001CoalQA, title={Coal quality and resources of the Former Soviet Union; an ArcView project}, author={M. Brownfield and Douglas W. Steinhouer and M. Povarennykh and Ivan Eriomin and M. Shpirt and Yevgeny Meitov and I. Sharova and Nina

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Coal quality and resources of the former Soviet

Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more.

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Data Dictionary for the Coal Quality and

Open-File Report 01–104: Data Dictionary for the Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet Union ArcView Project The following tables are data dictionaries describing each field or column name in the data files used in the ArcView project databases.

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Coal quality and resources of the former Soviet

Coal quality data contained in the database were selected from monographs, reference books, and other sources of data critically reviewed and deemed reliable by the Russian coauthors. Data points with information on the deposit name, location, age, and rank were included in the database, and coal quality and chemical parameters were included for selected data points.

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Coal quality and resources of the former Soviet

Request PDF Coal quality and resources of the former Soviet Union - an ArcView project The USGS Energy Resources Program, in response to the need for scientific support for national and ...

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The Formation and Evolution of the Soviet

29.03.2017  Energy is the necessary basis of any economy, and the Soviet Union in the late 1980s was the world’s biggest oil and gas producer and the third-biggest coal producer. But despite this, within its last ten years, it experienced grave problems caused by its fuel and energy complex. They were not linked to the shortages of oil and gas, but rather had to do with rapidly increasing costs (of exploring,

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Coal in Russia - Wikipedia

Russia is self-sufficient in coal, and consumed 223 million tons of coal in 2009. The percentage of coal in Russian power generation has been declining since 1990, when it was 20.7%, due to increasing gas consumption as well as increasing nuclear and hydroelectric energy production. Currently only 14.4% of Russia's power is produced from coal.

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The World Coal Quality Inventory: A status

20.07.2005  Two other CD-ROMs have been published: Coal Geology, Land Use, and Human Health in the Peoples Republic of China (Karlsen et al., 2001) and Coal Quality and Resources of the Former Soviet Union—An ArcView project (Brownfield et al., 2001). The CD-ROM currently in preparation is a report on coal quality of WoCQI samples for the coal-producing countries in South America

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Two decades ago, Soviet miners were a force

MOSCOW — By the end of June 1991, coal miners were fast becoming the heroes of the Soviet Union. They had always suffered. Mining was so dangerous throughout the empire that the casualty rate was...

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Major Industrial Regions of the Former USSR

It has a very considerable mineral wealth, not only in petroleum but also in coal and metallic minerals. Although these minerals are now being worked, they have not yet given rise to any large-scale manufacturing indus­tries beyond the petrochemical. The Soviet Far East is an area rich in forests and minerals. It is, however, remote from other parts of the Soviet Union, with which it is joined by the

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Major Qualities of the Former Soviet Union -

2 Russia (and the countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU)) occupy 1/6 of the Earth's land surface, and 1/2 of Eurasian continent--much of it is essentially empty. There are 141 million Russian people to China's 1.3 billion and India's 1.2 billion. Most Russians live in European Russia, west of the Urals.

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Post-Soviet states - Wikipedia

The Soviet "Green Front" was a populist environmental movement that had five subgroups: the Social-Ecological Union which promoted environmental solutions based in ecological practice, the Ecological Union which advocated for greater monitoring of pollution, the Ecological Foundation that sought to create funds through pollution taxes, the Ecological Society of the Soviet Union that called for a

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What has remained of the USSR: Exploring the erosion of ...

The idea to study in detail what remains of the former Soviet Union emerged during a brain-storming discussion among researchers from the Finnish Institute of International Affairs in the early autumn of 2016. The research project proper started in early 2018, after we received the crucially important support of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation. A project

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Former Soviet Union Coal Points, 2001 -

This shapefile contains points that describe coal locations with associated coal quality data in the countries comprising the Former Soviet Union. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and

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Review of the Soviet coal industry in 1985

The Soviet coal industry, after having stalled for six years, managed to resume growth in production in 1985 to reach a new high point of 726 million metric tons of gross mine output. This corresponded to a 1985 goal of 726 million tons and represented a rise of about 2%. The previous high, 723.6 million tons, was achieved in 1978. Because of Soviet secrecy, detailed coal mining data on ...

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Energy policy of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia

The energy policy of the Soviet Union was an important feature of the country's planned economy from the time of Lenin (head of government until 1924) onward. The Soviet Union was virtually self-sufficient in energy; major development of the energy sector started with Stalin's autarky policy of the 1920s. During the country's 70 years of existence (1922-1991), it primarily secured economic ...

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Drivers of CO2 emissions in the former Soviet

15.09.2013  The former Soviet Union provides an example of absolute decoupling of CO 2 ... The high carbon intensity is a reflection of the importance of coal in many post-soviet republics, as well as the presence of energy -intensive industries . These disparities among countries have only increased over the last 20 years. Coefficient of variation for energy and carbon intensity in 1990 was 0.57 and 0.56 ...

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Hot Coal, Cold Steel: Russian and Ukrainian

Coal miners in the final years of the Soviet Union effectively organized and led strikes which supported the end of Communism, even though their heavy subsidies would be threatened by capitalism. Steel workers, in contrast, did not effectively organize and strike. This pattern has continued under the new governments, with the coal miners effectively organized and seeking protection from the ...

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The coal resources of Armenia (Book) OSTI.GOV

The project is funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) as part of USAID`s emphasis on energy resources in the former Soviet Union. Relatively little is known about the coal resources of Armenia because the Soviet Union had many other sources for fuel. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia relied on nuclear power, hydropower, or imported power for their electricity and ...

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Major Qualities of the Former Soviet Union -

2 Russia (and the countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU)) occupy 1/6 of the Earth's land surface, and 1/2 of Eurasian continent--much of it is essentially empty. There are 141 million Russian people to China's 1.3 billion and India's 1.2 billion. Most Russians live in European Russia, west of the Urals.

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Post-Soviet states - Wikipedia

Total former Soviet Union: 22,307,815 8,613,096 296,582,638: 9 23 Current leaders Heads of state. Armenia ... and Czechoslovakia formed what is referred to as the "black triangle" due to their heavy use of brown coal for energy. Environmental degradation in the former Soviet Union is attributed to rapid industrialization and a lack of institutions that were able to curb pollution levels. Many ...

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Tkuarchal, Abkhazia – a former coal capital trying

In the Soviet Union at that time, industrialization was going on throughout, so the country’s leadership did not delay industrial development. Within a short time, several mines and processing enterprises were opened in this mountainous area, a railway was built along which Tkuarchal coal was transported. Mainly high-quality anthracite was mined, without which the work of metallurgical ...

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What has remained of the USSR: Exploring the erosion of ...

7. Demography and migration in post-Soviet countries 161 Liliya B. Karachurina 8. The ‘Russian World’ and the Orthodox Church in the post-Soviet space 195 Veera Laine 9. Organized crime in the former Soviet Union 217 Mark Galeotti Conclusion: What has remained of the former Soviet Union? 237 Arkady Moshes, András Rácz References 247

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Former Soviet Union Coal Points, 2001 -

This shapefile contains points that describe coal locations with associated coal quality data in the countries comprising the Former Soviet Union. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and

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Review of the Soviet coal industry in 1985

With over half of the world's known coal reserves, the Soviet Union is one of the world's most important coal producers. Coal production has been on an upswing for the last 10 years; production in 1970 was 615,300,000 tons, 1975 production was 694,600,000 tons, and in 1979, 712,900,000 tons were mined. A primary consideration in the future of the Soviet coal industry is better production rates for the surface

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Hot Coal, Cold Steel: Russian and Ukrainian

Coal miners in the final years of the Soviet Union effectively organized and led strikes which supported the end of Communism, even though their heavy subsidies would be threatened by capitalism. Steel workers, in contrast, did not effectively organize and strike. This pattern has continued under the new governments, with the coal miners effectively organized and seeking protection from the worst

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Drivers of CO2 emissions in the former Soviet

15.09.2013  The former Soviet Union provides an example of absolute decoupling of CO 2 emissions and economic growth. • Differences among countries are huge and the gap between them has only been increasing. • Energy intensity, affluence, industrialization and energy mix are the main factors driving changes in CO 2 emissions. •

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Underground Coal Gasification netl.doe.gov

Vladimir Lenin was an early proponent of the technology's ability to eliminate the need for miners to work in underground mines, and the former Soviet Union invested heavily in UCG research. By 1939 the Soviets had successfully begun operating a UCG plant in the Ukraine, which was later shut down by German occupation. Later (and to this day) the Skochinsky Institute of Mining in Moscow became a

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Major Qualities of the Former Soviet Union -

RUSSIA LECTURE TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION 1. Huge territory, 2.5 times as large as the US. 2. Harsh climates predominate, high latitudes, continentality, rugged mountains. 3. Borders more countries than any other. Many border disputes.

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Global perspective on the use of low quality coals

the quality of the coal produced. Often, this reflects the increasing exhaustion of reserves of higher grade coals and a growing reliance on reserves of lower quality. For instance, this overall downward trend in coal quality has been occurring in the USA since the 1950s although similar trends can be observed in many other parts of the world ...

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Water Quality Monitoring in the former Soviet Union and ...

Monitoring of surface water quality in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the present-day Russian Federation historically held an important place in the hierar-chy of science, legal framework and relations between agencies. Sadly, the gap between the intentions, qualification of managers and effective programmes has always been sizeable. Since disintegration of the FSU this gap has become a ...

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Quality of Life in the Soviet Union: A Conference Report

Unfortunately, quality housing in the Soviet Union is available to only a small portion of the population . (MORTON) Health care in the Soviet Union is also highly stratified, and the best medical care is typically reserved for a privileged few . The Soviet medical system is divided into a series of "networks" which serve different segments of the population according to one's position in ...

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Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? Britannica

Throughout the 1970s and ’80s, the Soviet Union ranked as one of the world’s top producers of energy resources such as oil and natural gas, and exports of those commodities played a vital role in shoring up the world’s largest command economy. When oil plunged from $120 a barrel in 1980 to $24 a barrel in March 1986, this vital lifeline to external capital dried up. The price of oil temporarily spiked in the

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